In a standard hydroponic system, production plants go through a period of vegetative growth that lasts 4 weeks, followed by a period of flowering growth that lasts 8 – 10 weeks. Total grow time for production plants is approximately 12-14 weeks.
There are 14 essential minerals in fertilizers that plants require for life. Macro nutrients are used by plants in the highest amounts. Micro nutrients are used in smaller amounts but are still required for life.
Tap water by itself is not enough to feed your plants. Tap water contains some native minerals but not enough, or all the required minerals. Fertilizer supplements containing all 14 essential minerals must be added to tap water to create a feeding solution.
Hydroponic plants require a very precise application of fertilizer. Dosages vary from week to week, supplying plants ideal nutrition for their stage of growth, while avoiding excesses that cause toxifying salt buildups in the grow media.
The multi-step Dr. Seeds Professional Hydroponics System is designed to prevent a toxic build up of minerals and optimize growth. For example, the system delivers more phosphorus during the 1st week of growth when plants can use it to support root strike, and during the 4th week of growth when plants use it to initiate budding. During weeks 2 and 3 phosphorus is applied less because at these times extra phosphorus won’t help your plants and excesses of it will block other beneficial nutrients from being absorbed. The nutrient ratios in the Dr. Seeds Professional Hydroponics System are proportioned perfectly for growing cannabis in hydroponics.
The amount of calcium and magnesium that needs to be added to the feeding solution depends on the starting state of the tap water. Tap water that is very hard contains calcium and magnesium already and doesn’t need as much extra added to it. R/O water or tap water that is very soft needs more calcium and magnesium added to it.
The Dr. Seeds Professional Hydroponics System offers optimal nutrition and works well for many cannabis strains. There are two kits available, one for R/O water and one for tap water. The kit for R/O water contains a full supplement of calcium and magnesium. The kit for tap water contains less calcium and magnesium because average tap water contains native calcium and magnesium already and doesn’t need as much extra added by fertilizer.
In the Dr. Seeds Professional Hydroponics kit, calcium & magnesium are packaged as a separate product from all the other 14 essential minerals because calcium should not be dissolved with water at the same time as phosphorus and sulphur. If calcium, phosphorus and sulphur are all mixed at the same time they bind together, forming unsoluble clumps. To avoid the clumping issue, dissolve calcium and magnesium fertilizer with water first, then pour it into a solution containing your other fertilizers.
Calcium and magnesium dosage must be adjusted to suit the starting state of the irrigation water. If using tap water, consider that there is calcium and magnesium already present in your water and therefore less calcium and magnesium fertilizer is needed to be added to it. On the other hand, water that contains little or no calcium and magnesium, such as rain water or R/O water, needs more calcium and magnesium added to it.
The starting state of water before adding any other minerals should be approximately 0.3 EC (300 TDS) of mostly calcium and magnesium.
The average volume of calcium and magnesium in tap water is 0.15 EC (150 TDS), although this varies significantly from region to region. Check your municipalities website to find out how much calcium & magnesium is in your water. Adjust fertilizer dosage accordingly to get to approximately 0.3 EC (300 TDS).
Fertilizers designed for hydroponics require a precise application of fertilizers. The volume of minerals in a feeding solution must be carefully measured and then regularly monitored throughout the grow cycle to maintain ranges that are safe for plants.
The volume of minerals dissolved in water is measured using an EC metre. EC stands for Electric Conductivity. EC metres work by measuring resistance to an electrical charge between two filaments while submerged in a feeding solution. Dissolved solids affect resistance allowing the EC metre to approximate the volume of dissolved solids in water.
Some EC metres output their measurement as TDS or PPM instead of EC. TDS stands for Total Dissolved Solids and PPM stands for Parts Per Million. TDS or PPM are different standards of measurement, similar to inches compared to centimetres.
A conversion from EC to the other measurement standards is simple:
1 EC = 500 TDS 1 EC = 700 PPM or 500 PPM*
*PPM is not a consistent measurement standard because sometimes it is 500 EC and sometimes its 700 EC. Use EC or TDS for your measurement standard to avoid accidental calculation errors.
The pH scale is the measurement of how acidic or basic water is, ranging from 0 to 14. 7 is neutral—neither acidic nor basic. A number lower than 7 is acidic. A number higher than 7 is basic.
Acidic means there are more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions in a solution. Basic means there are more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions in a solution.
Acidic substances add hydrogen ions to a solution making it more acidic. Alkali substances take ions away from a solution making it more basic.
Substances added to water that are acidic or alkali modify the pH of water.
The pH value of a solution affects a plant’s ability to absorb minerals. For example, plants struggle to uptake manganese, phosphate, and iron when a feeding solution is too basic.
pH also has an effect on the solubility of minerals. Minerals are soluble when water has a pH of 5.6-6.4. If pH drifts out of this range, minerals can precipitate out of solution. For example, calcium, iron and phosphate start to leave solution when pH rises above 6.5.
The pH of a feeding solution for cannabis plants should be kept between 5.8-6.3. This range optimizes mineral solubility and uptake.
The pH of water is measured using an electronic pH meter. pH meters must be calibrated before use using calibration solutions.
Growers adjust the pH of their solutions with commercially available pH Up and pH Down solutions. pH Up is a concentrated base that raises pH. pH Down is a concentrated acid that lowers pH.
pH up and down solutions are very concentrated and are best administered to water with a syringe or dropper.
Rain, tap or well water always comes pre-loaded with some native substances before fertilizer gets added to it. When water has more substances than average it’s called hard water. When water has less substances than average it’s called soft water.
The predominant minerals found natively in tap water are calcium and magnesium.
A measurement of your water taken before nutrients are added will determine its hardness:
Very Soft Water 0-70 TDS 0 – 0.14 EC
Soft Water 70-140 TDS 0.14 – 0.28 EC
Slightly Hard Water 140-210 TDS 0.28 – 0.42 EC
Moderately Hard Water 210-320 TDS 0.42 – 0.64 EC
Hard Water 320-530 TDS 0.64 – 1.06 EC
To prepare soft water for use, harden it using Dr. Seeds Cal- Mag fertilizer. Average tap water is soft-slightly hard, approximately 0.15 EC (150 TDS), and should be raised to 0.3 EC (300 TDS) using Cal-Mag. R/O or tap water is very soft and will need even more Cal-Mag added to it to reach the target of 0.3 EC (300 TDS).
Excessively hard water is a bigger problem than soft water because too many minerals can toxify a hydroponics system. The best way to deal with hard water is to use a reverse osmosis process to take the minerals out. A reverse osmosis machine can remove nearly all the mineral content in the hard water. Once minerals are removed, calcium and magnesium can be added back in to the correct levels.
When nutrients are added to water the resulting mixture is called a feeding solution.
There are maximum limits for how many minerals should be in a feeding solution for each stage of plant growth. When nutrients are present at healthy levels, plants are able to uptake and use them effectively. When there’s an excess of minerals, a build up accumulates in the growing media which can cause several serious problems:
Mineral buildup can cause plants to stop taking up water.
Minerals trapped in the growing media bind with minerals in the feeding solution, blocking plants from absorbing the bound minerals. This leads to a nutrient deficiency of the minerals that are bound.
Mineral buildup in the grow media causes pH to swing in the roots zone. Irregular pH causes minerals to precipitate out of solution and prevents plants from absorbing minerals.
Mineral buildups occur when plants are fed more minerals than they can absorb and they should be avoided.
The total amount of minerals that should be in a feeding solution depends on plant’s stage of growth. Young seedlings and clones use fewer minerals. As plants get older and larger they use more minerals, until they reach late bloom when they start to consume less.
The list below details the total approximate recommended mineral concentration after all nutrients and additives have been added to water for all the growth stages of cannabis. Maintaining a feeding solution within these ranges helps prevent over fertilization problems.
Water sourced from the tap can contain too much chlorine. Chlorine gets added at the municipal reservoir to kill microorganisms and bacteria to make drinking water more safe for humans. For plants, high levels of chlorine are harmful to their root zone and therefore should be removed. Before adding any fertilizers, remove chlorine from your tap water using a chlorine filter. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) tablets will also get rid of chlorine.
Fertilized irrigation water can attract fungi infections that consume nutrients. This is bad because fungi destroys fertilizer so plants can’t use it. Prevent fungi colonies from developing by adding sodium benzonate to the irrigation water at a concentration of .13 gram / 100 litres.
Powdered fertilizers must be dissolved with water before use. Dissolve powders thoroughly in a small volume of water, then pour the resulting solution into a larger volume of water. Heating water helps powders dissolve better. Calcium and magnesium powdered fertilizer needs to dissolved with water independently of other fertilizers because it can cause clumping when mixed at same time with phosphorus and sulphur. Always use a mask when working with fertilizers to avoid inhalation.
Plant stimulants aid in how plants process minerals. They help plants access and take up water and minerals more effectively. Bio-stimulants make plants more productive and stress resistant, improving growth results beyond what can be achieved with regular fertilizers alone.
Humic Acid and Amino Acid are chelators. Chelators help plants take up minerals better.
Kelp extract contains growth hormones that are beneficial for stimulating plant processes.
Yucca is a speading agent that helps feeding solution spread out better on the leaf surface and in grow media, improving nutrient absorption by plants.
Bio-stimulants are not fertilizer. They enhance the effectiveness of fertilizer.
Foliar sprays can help clones root faster. Cuttings taken from a mother plant to make clones have no roots and no other way to absorb water & nutrients except through their foliage. During their rooting period, clones are kept on life support in a humidity dome where they survive only by absorbing water & nutrients through their foliage from the air. Support vulnerable clones with foliar feeding directly on their leaves. Apply a foliar spray containing Kelp Extract and Humic Acid to clones because it will speed up their root development and boost their survival rate.
Foliar sprays are also very effective for emergency first-aid correction of nutrient deficiencies. Plants can absorb nutrients sprayed directly on their leaves more immediately than absorption through their roots. If your plants have a nutrient deficiency, apply a foliar spray in addition to correcting their feeding solution because foliar absorption offers the advantage of speed. A faster delivery of deficient minerals reduces stress and damage and can in more extreme cases make the difference between life and death for your plants.
A foliar spray is improved with the addition of yucca extract. Yucca is a water spreading agent that makes water spread out and cover a leaf’s surface rather than beading up, allowing nutrients to be more thoroughly distributed and absorbed. Add some yucca to your Foliar sprays to make them work better.
Foliar sprays should not be applied under strong lighting because water can act as a lens that can burn foliage. Apply foliar sprays only when lights are off.
Not all products should be used as a foliar spray, and some products should only be applied as a foliar spray during the vegetative growth phase. Before using a product in a foliar spray check if it is indicated for foliar use and which stages of growth it can be used.